The national ideals of India are Renunciation and Service. Intensify her in those channels and the rest will take care of itself.
― Swami Vivekananda
After the passing away of Sri Ramakrishna Deva, the Prophet of the harmony of all religions, in 1886, a monastic Order bearing his name was organised by some of his Sannyasin disciples headed by Swami Vivekananda. After some years spent in intense spiritual practices, the ideal that gradually shaped itself before the vision of the Order had a twofold character :—
(a) To bring into existence a band of Sannyasins devoted to leading a life of renunciation and practical spirit- uality, from among whom teachers and workers could be sent out to spread Vedantic and religious ideas as illustrated in the life of Sri Ramakrishna.
(b) It conjunction with the lay disciples to carry on missionary, philanthropic and charitable work, looking upon all men, women and children irrespective of caste, creed or colour as veritable manifestations of the Divine.
For some time the philanthropic and missionary work was carried on through the medium of an Association called the Ramakrishna Mission Association started by Swami Vivekananda in May, 1897, shortly after his return from the
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West. In the year 1899 a Math or monastery was started at Belur, in the district of Howrah, Bengal, and in 1901 Swami Vivekananda executed a Trust Deed vesting the buildings and properties in a body of Trustees, the main objects of the Math being the training of a band of monks for Self-realisation and for the acquisition of a capacity to serve the world in all possible ways. Soon after this Math was established as the central seat of the monastic order, the Ramkrishna Mission Association ceased to function as an independent organisation, and the Math authorities themselves carried on the philanthropic and charitable work originally undertaken by the Mission Association.
In course of time, with the growth of its scope and public responsibilities it was felt that for the efficient carrying on of the philanthropic, charitable and missionary work, as well as for giving it a legal status, it was better to have a separate organisation known as the Ramkrishna Mission. Accordingly in the year 1909 a Society under the name of the Ramkrishna Mission was registered under Act XXI of 1860. (Appendix G gives extracts from the Memorandum of Association and Appendix H extracts from, the Rules.) The management of the Ramkrishna Mission was henceforth vested in a Governing Body consisting of the Trustees of the Belur Math for the time being. The registration of the Mission was undertaken to keep the Math activities, viz., the training and maintenance of a band of, Sannyasins to carry on religious work, distinct from the Mission activities.
The activities of the Belur Math extended, and in course of time various branch Maths sprang up in different parts of the country. These branch Maths and the Math at Belur were from their very inception treated as part of a single organisation. Side by side with the springing into existence of the branch Maths, the Ramkrishna Mission extended its sphere of activities, and the various philanthropic and charitable institutions that had already been started by it in different parts of India were gradually incorporated into the registered Society known as the
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Ramkrishna Mission, and new centres also began to be started.
Though the Ramkrishna Mission and the Ramakrishna Math with their respective centres are distinct institutions, there has been a close association between the two bodies, as the Governing Body of the Mission is identical with the Trustees of the Math, and the principal workers of the Mission are members of the Ramakrishna Math and both have their headquarters at the Belur Math. The name of the Ramkrishna Mission has, however, come to be loosely used by people in connection with all Math activities also.
It is necessary to point out that the mere use of the name of Sri Ramakrishna or Swami Vivekananda with any institution does not necessarily imply that it is managed or controlled by either the Trustees of the Belur Math or the Governing Body of the Ramkrishna Mission, or that the central organisation at Belur is responsible for their activities.
In furtherance of the objects of the Math and the
Mission, trained members of the Order are sent out tocountries outside India for the preaching of Vedanta in orderto bring about a closer relation and better understandingbetween India and foreign countries.
The Math and the Mission, which, as pointed out, are independent of each other in their respective spheres of activities, own separate funds and keep separate accounts of them. The Math fund consists of private subscriptions and donations from friends and devotees ear-marked for worship, maintenance of the monks undergoing spiritual discipline, celebrations of anniversary festivals, etc. In several Maths this fund is strengthened by the proceeds of the publication of the Ramakrishna-Vivekananda literature. For conducting the work of the Mission, subscriptions and donations are collected from the general public. These constitute the Mission fund, which is annually audited by auditors appointed in the General Meeting of the Association.
It is gratifying to note that through the grace of the Lord and the sympathetic co-operation of the generous public, the various activities of the Mission have shown an all-round progress during the period under review, and that our countrymen have been evincing a greater interest in our movement, which is recognised as one of the nation-building forces in India.
Under the headquarters at Belur there were in 1935 26 Mission centres, 16 combined Math and Mission centres and 25 Math centres in India and Burma. These were distributed as follows: 30 in Bengal, 2 in Assam, 5 in Bihar, 3 in Orissa, 11 in U.P., 1 each in Delhi, C.P., Kathiawad and Bombay, 2 in Mysore, 1 in Cochin, 1 in Coorg, 6 in Madras, and 2 in Burma. In addition to these, there were 4 centres in Ceylon, 1 each in Straits Settlements, England Germany and South America, and 12 centres in the United States of America. Thus there were altogether 87 centres at the end of 1935. Most of these centres conducted various types of work. Under the centres in India, Straits Settlements and Ceylon there were 9 Indoor Hospitals which accommodated 7,039 patients, 44 Outdoor Dispensaries which treated 10,50,332 patients, 28 Ashramas undertaking home nursing, cremation and gratuitous relief, 24 Ashramas accommodating 644 students, 3 Residential Schools with 286 boys, 7 High Schools with' 1,8811 students, 3 Industrial Schools with 110 boys, 6 Middle English Schools with 791 boys and girls, 48 Upper and Lower Primary Schools with 4,849 boys and girls, 15 Night Schools with 29 students, and 4 Orphanages with 84 boys. The centres also conducted Libraries and Reading Rooms. During this period five Sanskrit Chatushpathis were run, mainly for the benefit of the members of the Order. Some Math centres printed books on religious subjects, and five magazines in different languages were published regularly. Relief work of various types was undertaken by the headquarters and the branch centres fr6m time to time. Preaching is the special work of the Math centres. All of them organised public meetings and religious classes which were well attended.
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The activities of the Math and the Mission have been described in this Report in five sections. Section I deals with the Math and Mission headquarters, Section II with the group of Mission centres only, classified into (A) Institutions of general service and (B) Institutions mainly educational, Section III with combined Math and Mission centres, Section IV with. Math centres alone, and Section V with centres outside India. We shall take them up in order. The descriptions given here are short, as most of the centres publish separate Reports of their activities, to which reference may be made for details. The statistics of the different centres have been omitted from the body, of this Report and given in a tabulated form in Appendices A to F at the end.
The Math and Mission Headquarters
THE RAMAKRISHNA MATH, BELUR
Itwas the aim of Swami Vivekananda to found aninstitution where thousands of young men would be providedwith the means of attaining their own liberation and of
effectively preparing themselves for the good of, humanity.The first and foremost of all the Maths and Ashramasstarted for the realisation of this object is the central Mathat Belur situated on the right bank of the Ganges, threemiles to the north of Calcutta, in full view of the templeof Dakshineswar. Associated with the holy lives and athousand sacred memories of Swami Vivekananda and his
brother-disciples—who have done so much for the spiritual
regeneration of India and the whole world—the Belur Math,with its spacious grounds and serene atmosphere, is a place'of pilgrimage to all seekers of Truth. It has been yearlyattracting larger sections of our countrymen and an ever-increasing number of interested visitors from foreigncountries.
With a view to disseminating the ideas and ideals of the Sanatana Dharma, the Swamis of the Order undertook, during the period under review, lecturing tours in different parts of the country, where they were received with great enthusiasm. These were too numerous to mention in detail.
Five of the Swamis who have been working in America as preachers of Vedanta returned to the Math for a brief respite from their strenuous labours extending over periods ranging from two to twelve years. These were Swami Gijaneswarananda of Chicago, Swami Akhilananda of Providence, Swami Ashokananda of San Francisco, Swami
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Paramananda of La Crescenta and Boston, and Svvami Prabhavananda of Hollywood. Their sojourn in India was not, however, free from activity, for in the course of their visits to the different centres they had to address public meetings and give talks to groups of devotees and admirers, all of which produced a profound inpression on the audience.
The course of training in the Math went on without a break, and several young men had the privilege of being initiated into the vows of Brahmacharya and Sannyasa. Regular classes were held throughout the period under review. In the attached Chatushpathi or Sanskrit School there were four or five daily classes, some under a qualified teacher, and the others under capable monks of the Order. In these classes various philosophical and religious books were studied. A general class was maintained for the study of the religious literature of the Order, which was open to the public.
Through the generous help of some American friends, a stone temple of Sri Ramakrishna with a Natmandir (prayer hall), at an estimated cost of about Rs. 7,00,000 is under construction and is likely to be completed in the autumn of 1937. It may be noted here that the plan of this structure was originally drawn up at the suggestion of Swami Vivekananda. A brick embankment and a spacious ghat on the Ganges have advanced substantially towards completion.
The need of a Guest House for devotees and admirers who want to pass a few days with their families near the precincts of the Math in order to profit by its spiritual atmosphere or to study at first hand the workings of the Mission at its chief centre, is being more and more keenly felt. The estimated cost of the land and building is Rs. 25,000. It is earnestly hoped that before long this particular want of the headquarters will be removed by generous friends and well-wishers of the Order.
THE MISSION HEADQUARTERS AT BELUR
The Belur Math, as already mentioned, is also the headquarters of the Ramkrishna Mission, from which the activities of its different branch centres are regulated. Besides this work of supervision, the Mission headquarters conducts the following works:—
1. The Ramkrishna Mission Charitable Dispensary, Belur
This outdoor Dispensary was founded in the year 1913. Besides rendering medical relief it. also supplied occasional diet, warm clothing and pecuniary help to the needy. The physician in charge also attended patients in their own homes free of charge whenever necessary, and in serious cases the services of expert physicians were requisitioned. The Dispensary has grown quite popular and drew patients from good distances. It, however, still requires proper accommodation and equipment.
2. Mass Education Work
Through the kindness of a few American friends, the Mission headquarters at Belur started in the year 1928 a number of Primary Schools for the removal of illiteracy among Indian children. In 1934 the Mission helped 5 such schools from the Mass Education Fund. The following ten schools received aid in 1935:
(1) The Bally Girls' School (helped up to June), (2) Haldibunia Ramkrishna Vidyalaya (Khulna), (3) Bally-Barrackpore M. E. School, (4) Gacha Night School (24 Pargannas), (5) Kachulia L. P. School (Barisal), (6) Ramkrishna Vidyalaya, Dharamtul (Nowgong), (7) Bagda M. E. School (Manbhum), (8) Vivekananda Matrimandir, Haldibunia (Khulna), (9) Bally Balika Vidyalaya, (10) Brahmankitta M. E. School (Dacca).
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The receipts of this fund in 1934 together with previous balance amounted to Rs. 579-12-7 and the expenditure to Rs. 364-4. The corresponding figures for 1935 were Rs. 648-3-1 and Rs. 175-14-6 respectively, leaving a balance: of Rs. 472-4-7 at the end of the year.
It is gratifying to note that the Mankhanda girls' school(24 Pargannas), which received aid till 1935, became self-supporting. Aid to the Daharkundu School (Hooghly)was discontinued for some time, but it has subsequentlybeen resumed. ^
Owing to the shortage of funds, the work was greatly handicapped. To those who believe, with Swami Viveka-nanda, that the well-being of a nation depends on the condition of its masses, w« earnestly appeal for contribution to this fund.
3. Temporary Relief Work
1. (a) Bihar Earthquake Relief (January to September, 1934):
In the afternoon of the 15th January 1934, Bihar suffered one of the severest shocks in the history of the world. As soon as the news reached Calcutta, the Mission undertook extensive relief work in the affected areas, both urban and rural, and gradually expanded its activities to seven districts—Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Champaran, Chapra, Patna, Monghyr and Bhagalpur—as the financial backing of the public became more active. The work was organised through fourteen centres, the type of relief given by each of them varying according to the need of the place Altogether the Mission constructed 1,993 temporary and 1,428 semi-permanent huts, supplied materials or cash for the erection of 944 more semi-permanent huts, in addition to 1,356 corrugated iron sheets etc., and repaired 193 houses. It also cleaned 253 wells, repaired 12 and sank 7 new ones. The Mission distributed 3,181 mds. 9 srs. of foodstuffs, 13,411 pieces of new and 10,334 pieces of old of cloth, 1,713
woollen and 7,706 cotton blankets, 11 bales and 25,200 yds. of hessian, 100 durries, 5,031 utensils and 938 buckets, besides other things. The most notable contribution, amounting to Rs. 60,470-3-3, was received from the Mayor's Earthquake Relief Fund, Calcutta.
(b) The Mission also took prompt steps for opening relief work during the flood that followed the earthquake at Monghyr in August, 1934. 1,600 people were supplied with 305 mds. of foodstuffs and other things, and 200 men, women and children were rescued from the Chaura, which was completely submerged.
2.Assam Flood Relief (June to November, 1934) :
(a) In the district of Nowgong 1,777 mds. 14 chs. of rice, 2,854 pieces of new and 659 pieces of old cloth as also 55 other new articles of clothing were distributed from two centres among 4,253 persons belonging to 73 villages. Besides, 1,971 sick persons were helped with medicine, and 56 houses were newly built and 14 repaired.
(&) In the district of Sylhet four centres were conducted by the Sylhet branch of the Mission, which spent Rs. 6,891-11-9, the headquarters contributing Rs. 2,800 for the purpose. Details of this work will be found in the report of the Ashrama elsewhere.
(c) In the Habiganj sub-division of this district 846 persons belonging to 22 villages were helped with 254 mds. 25 srs. of rice and 292 pieces of new and 711 pieces of old cloth.
3.Cholera Relief Work at Maligram (Midnapore):
The work lasted from 24th July to 6th August, in the course of which 48 patients were treated, of whom 40 were cured. Besides, 27 houses and 7 tanks were disinfected. The total expenditure for this work was Rs. 61-10.
4.Damodar Flood Relief (August to December, 1935) :
The Mission opened two centres in the district of
Hooghly and distributed 669 mds. 31 srs. 12 chs. of rice,22 mds. 16 srs. of other foodstuffs, 593 pieces of old clothand 54 pieces and 80 yds. of new cloth and 50 blanketsamong 1,194 persons belonging to 26 villages. Besides 126huts were built and 15 persons were helped with money forthe purpose.
In the Burdwan district (August to November)two centres were opened and 676 mds. 8 srs. 12 chs. of rice,14 mds. of other foodstuffs, 600 pieces of Old cloth and283 pieces of new cloth were distributed among 1,727persons belonging to, 29 villages. Besides, pecuniary help
was given for constructing 640 huts.
(c) In the Bankura district (9th September to 30th. September) one centre was opened and 538 persons belonging to 7 villages received 66 mds. 23srs. of rice and pecuniary help for building 131 huts.
5.Famine Relief Work in Bankura (October, 1935 to
February, 1936) :
The local centre of the Mission began the work in August, 1935. Subsequently the work was taken up by the headquarters and continued till the middle of February, 1936. Four centres were opened and 1,372 persons belonging to 155 villages were helped with 734 mds. 9 srs. of rice and
218 pieces of cloth.
6.Minor Relief Works:
The headquarters spent Rs. 760 from the Provident Relief Fund towards the undermentioned relief works:—
(a) Habiganj Flood Relief (Sylhet) (b) Abdalpur and Chakkrishnapur Tornado Relief (24 Parganas) (c) Dhalla Fire Relief (Birbhum) (d) Manyada Fire Relief (Bankura) (e) Bansa Temporary Famine Relief (Burd-
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wan) (f) Manbhum Fire Relief and (g) Tamluk Cholera Relief (Midnapur).
4. Help to the Poor
The Mission headquarters also maintained a Poor Fund for the redress of individual distress, out of which it helped a number of helpless widows and gave small stipends to some deserving students. Besides a Permanent Fund of Rs. 6,000 in Government securities, the total receipts of this Fund in 1934 and 1935 including previous balance were Rs, 3,105-7-11, and the total expenditure Rs.2,84-13, leaving a meagre balance of Rs. 264-10-11. Urgent attention of the sympathetic public is respectfully invited towards the improvement of this Fund.
Detailed accounts of the Provident Relief Fund, the Mass Education Fund, the Poor Fund and the General Fund, along with the audited balance sheet of the Mission headquarters, are published in a separate Report.
A. INSTITUTIONS OF GENERAL SERVICE
The Ramkrishna Mission Home of Service, Benares
This is the most prominent Sevashrama of the Mission, and its services to the sick and poor irrespective of caste, creed or sex, have won the admiration of all. Started in J.900, it was handed over to the Ramkrishna Mission in 1902, and was formally made a branch centre of the Mission as a registered body in 1909. It has been occupying its present premises at Laksa since 1910, and has got a valuable property of its own. The work has grown at a steady pace, and a branch Outdoor Dispensary was opened in July, 1931, at the Shivala quarter of the city. The present activities of the Home may be divided under the following heads:—
(1) Indoor General Hospital: It takes care of those helpless sufferers who are picked up from the roadside or bathing-ghats, besides those who seek admission into it. The Female Hospital is segregated from the Male Hospital and is conducted exclusively by lady workers. All three systems of treatment—Allopathic, Homoeopathic, and Ayurvedic—are made use of. (2) Refuge for InvalidMen: There are 25 beds in it, four of which were occupied by permanent invalids during the period under review. (3) Refuge for Women Invalids: There were 7 inmates on an average in this Refuge, which is located at the Dasaswamedh Ghat. (4) Girls' Home: three girls on an average have been accommodated in this Home and received training while helping in the work of the Female Hospital. (5) Home for Paralytic Patients: It accom-
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modated 14 patients in 1934 and 11 in 1935. (6) Dharma-sala for poor strangers: It gave temporary shelter and food to about 363 persons during the period under review. (7) Outdoor help to Invalids and poor Ladies of respectable families. (8) Outdoor Dispensary (including the Shivala branch). (9) Special and occasional relief.
A kitchen for the female department was added inOctober, 1934. In December, 1935 the Tincouri MemorialLaboratory was opened by Sir J. P. Srivastava, Minister forEducation, U. P. The Sevashrama also undertook the construction of a Refuge for the aged and invalid women at anestimated cost of Rs. 40,000.
The Ramkrishna Mission Sevashrama, Rangoon
It is situated on Merchant Street, East Rangoon, on an extensive plot of land lent by the Government, the structures being provided by the Corporation of Rangoon. It was started in 1921 and was made a branch centre of the Mission in the next year. Its services to hundreds of thousand sick Narayanas hailing from distant places and speaking diverse tongues are being increasingly appreciated both by the Government and the public. The institution is making-rapid progress in all directions. Certain major improvements were carried out during the period under review. Trie-King George V Silver Jubilee Ward, opened in May, 1935 by the Chief Justice of Rangoon enlarged the accommodation by 14 beds, and the R. M. Das Laboratory opened by His Excellency the Governor of Burma in November 1935, removed an acute want.
The Sevashrama, which is the second largest hospital in. Burma, maintains an Indoor Hospital with separate Female-Wards under 'the supervision of a lacly doctor and an Outdoor Dispensary. As regards volume of work in these departments, it is easily the first among the Mission institutions. Its efficiency of treatment is also no less conspicuous.
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The Ramkrishna Mission Sevashrama, Kankhal (Saharanpur)
This Sevashrama has been doing considerable service to the sick ever since its establishment in 1901. It was formally made a branch centre of the Mission in 1911. Its activities lie in the following directions: (1) An Indoor Hospital. (2) An Outdoor Dispensary. (3) A Night School for Harijans attached to the Sevashrama. (4) A Library and a Reading Room. The institution has got a number of commodious buildings.
The Ramkrishna Mission Sevashrama,
The Sevashrama at Brindaban was started in the year 1907 and was handed over to the Mission in the following year. It was formally made a branch centre in 1911. Although it has done excellent service to thousands of prilgrims to this holy place, it has always had to work hard against great financial difficulties.
The activities of the Sevashrama fall under the following heads: The Indoor Hospital, the Outdoor Dispensary, and pecuniary and other help to poor people.
The Ramkrishna Mission Sevashrama, Lucknow
This Sevashrama had its inception in the year 1914. It was removed to its permanent quarters at Aminabad in, 1924 and was converted into a branch centre of the Ramkrishna Mission in 1925. The centre runs an Outdoor Dispensary and helps poor people with regular and casual allowances.
A Night School is conducted by the Sevashrama mainlyfor the boys of the labouring and depressed classes. Thereis also a Library and a Reading Room attached to theAshrama.
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The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Delhi
The centre at Delhi was started in the old city in 1927
as a Math, doing preaching work. In 1929 an OutdoorDispensary was added to it and in the latter part of theyear a Students' Home. The Institution was made a branchcentre of the Mission in 1930. In 1931 a permanentsite on Ibbetson Road, New Delhi, was secured for it from,the Government, where it was removed on the 16th October,1935.
The free Tuberculosis Clinic started in 1933 at Paharganj, one of the most congested quarters of Delhi, is doing good work. The Ashrama also conducted an Outdoor Dispensary for general diseases. Besides classes on religious topics, lectures and Bhajana for the public were; organised from time to time.
The Ramkrishna Mission Sisumangal Pratishthan, Calcutta
This institution, located at 104, Baku Bagan Road, Bhowanipur, was started in July, 1932, with the object of safeguarding the maternal and infantile health of the country against the appalling rate of mortality. This is sought to be attained by giving regular hygienic instruction and efficient pre-natal care to expectant mothers through Sunday clinics, providing skilled aid during confinement either in the homes of the patients or in the hospital of the Pratishthan, taking systematic care of new-born babies up to the school-going age through home visits and bi-weekly clinics, and training women of good families in midwifery, obstetrical nursing and infant care. A very efficient staff looks after the work of the institution, the management being placed in the hands of an influential Local Committee.
In 1934 and 1935 the Pratishthan made 7,626 home-visits, registered 1,617 new mothers, conducted 1,098 deliveries and registered 1,034 children. It is gratifying to note
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that in 1935 infantile mortality and maternal 'mortality were only 12 and 6 per 1,000 respectively. The result can compare favourably with that of the best clinics and maternity hospitals in the world and is attributable, to the special care taken by the staff and the spirit of service actuating them.
The Indoor Hospital, fitted with up-to-date appliances, opened in December, 1933, had 15 beds for mothers and an equal number of isolated beds for babies in 1935.
The institution has, within the very short period of its existence, succeeded in winning, universal admiration as an ideal child welfare centre. The Corporation of Calcutta has shown its appreciation by making a large recurring grant to the institution.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Cawnpore
This is a growing institution which was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1931. It undertakes different types of humanitarian activity, such as regular worship, Bhajana and religious classes, observance of the birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda and other festivals, two Boys' Schools and a Students' Home.
The Ashrama has recently got a large plot of land worth about Rs. 14,500 as a gift from the Cawnpore Improvement Trust for a general Hospital. An appeal is made to the public for contributions for a suitable building.
The Ramkrishna Mission Sevashrama, Midnapore
This Ashrama has been in existence since 1914, and was recognised as a branch centre in 1931. It conducts an Indoor Hospital, an Outdoor Dispensary, two Primary Schools and a Library .for the public, and gives casual help to needy persons. Religious classes and lectures are arranged from time to time. Owing to political unrest, however, the Library and the classes had to be closed for the period underreview.
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The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Katihar (Purnea)
This Ashrama was started in 1926 and was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1931. It conducts an outdoor Charitable Dispensary. On the occasion of the "Ardhodaya Yoga" in 1935, the Ashrama opened a relief camp at Manihari Ghat and helped the pilgrims in various ways. It also organised fire relief work during the same year and helped 656 persons with food for three days.
Regular religious classes were held, and the birthdays
of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda were cele-brated, when essay-competitions and outdoor games wereorganised.
The Ramkrishna Mission Seva Sadan,
This institution has been in existence since 1924 and was taken over as a branch centre by the Mission in 1931. It conducts an outdoor Charitable Dispensary, and maintains an Orphanage for boys, who get their general education in the local High School.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Ranchi
This Ashrama, situated at Morabadi, a secluded quarter of the town, was started in 1927, and was recognised as a branch centre of the Mission in 1930. It has an Outdoor Dispensary attached to it. It also conducts a small library and holds regular religious classes for the benefit of the public.
B. INSTITUTIONS MAINLY EDUCATIONAL
The Ramkrishna Mission Students' Home, Madras
This premier educational institution of the Mission was started in 1905 to provide free boarding and lodging to indigent students of approved merit. It was recognised as a branch centre of the Mission in 1918. Its growth throughout has been phenomenal. In 1921 it was established in spacious buildings of its own. In 1922 a Residential High School was, added, and in 1925 an Industrial School.
The period under review saw the construction of a
dormitory for the Industrial Section capable of accommodating 36 students. During these two years, more than a third of the students were in receipt of scholarships and fee concessions.
The Home also paid proper attention to the physical, moral and religious training of the boys, who also received tutorial guidance from the ward-masters. All the High School boys did regular work in the evenings in the gardens maintained by them. The masters, many of whom are old boys of the Home, gave their best to carry on and promote its noble traditions. The Old Boys' Association also did very useful work by publishing a quarterly magazine, and by trying to keep alive a spirit of fellowship among the old boys.
The Residential High School continued to produce good results at the public examinations and maintained several extra-curriculum activities. Manual training was compulsory, and each boy had to learn either carpentry, weaving or rattan work.
The Industrial School provided a course in Mechanical Engineering. The new classes in automobile engineering started in June, 1934, have been recognised by the Govern-
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ment. The students, under the direction of the staff, carried out many additions and alterations in the existing structures.
The general Library and the School Library attached to the Home were well utilised by the boys.
The branch School started in 1932 at Mambalam, a suburb of Madras, is flourishing. Steps are being taken for the construction of a substantial building. A Hostel attached to the school was opened in 1934. The school has its separate Library, Laboratory, Museum and suitable arrangements for games and physical exercises.
The Ramkrishna Mission Students' Home, Calcutta
This Students' Home was started in 1916 with theobject of imparting to poor and deserving young men ahefficient home-training to supplement University educationby building up their character and developing their potentiali-ties. The experiment so far has been quite encouraging,and the institution was made a branch centre of the Missionin 1919. The Home was removed in 1932 to its ownresidence at Gauripur (P.O. Dum-Dum), close to the JessoreRoad, six miles from Calcutta. In 1934 a new dormitory toaccommodate 12 students was completed. The Home hasits own bus for the conveyance of the students to Calcuttacolleges and back.
The results at the University examinations have been very encouraging throughout the period.
Scriptural classes were held thrice a week, excluding the vacations, and several religious festivals were celebrated, which, being social gatherings on a religious basis, afforded the students a healthy recreation while intensifying their spiritual aspirations. A monthly manuscript magazine was conducted by the students. Saturday classes were held, when the students met to discuss socio-religious topics and read papers and extracts on various subjects. All household duties except cooking were managed by the students, and the duties were distributed every month by a represen-
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tative commitee of the students. The Home has been recognised by the Calcutta University as a college students' Hostel.
The Sister Nivedita Girls' School and Sarada Mandir, Calcutta
This Girls' School at 5, Nivedita Lane, Baghbazar, was started by Sister Nivedita (Miss Margaret E. Noble) in 1902, to give proper education to Hindu girls. She wanted each of them to be loyal to the ideals of the race and filled with a passion for service. While keeping intact her tenderness and humility, her great power of service and her silent self-effacement, which go to make her the centre of the Hindu home, the school has all along been endeavouring to make her more efficient in the household duties and the arts and crafts auxiliary to them. It is the aim of the institution to train the students in such a way that they may be able to solve their own problems.
The institution was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1918, and its usefulness is amply borne out by the ever-increasing rush for admission. The school teaches up to the Matriculation standard, and is taken care of by eighteen lady teachers, six of whom are honorary workers. The teaching is entirely free. Along with Bengali, Sanskrit, mathematics, history and geography, were taught drawing, music, needlework, rules of hygiene, and house-keeping. Religious training was an important part of the curriculum. Special scriptural classes and occasional lectures were arranged from time to time for the inmates. The SaradaMandir or Hostel attached to the school accommodates students who live under the motherly care of resident lady teachers. The school has got a decent Library and Reading Room. It also possesses a bus and a motor car.
The Ramkrishna Mission Vidyapith, Deoghar (Sonthal Parganas)
The Ramkrishna Mission Vidyapith is a Residential High School for young boys, conducted of the model of the
ancient Gurukula system, which, while not precluding theassimilation of academic knowledge, seeks to lay the main'stress on the development of character and a religiousspirit, through a combined process of self-restraint and self-development. It was started in 1922 and was converted
into a branch centre of the Mission in 1924. It is situatedon an open plot of land amid picturesque natural sceneryaway from the bustle of the town. Most of the teachersare monks of the Ramakrishna Order. A few self-sacrific-ing graduates have also volunteered to serve the institutionon a nominal pittance.
During the period under review the institution was able to expand its activities in various department. The Calcutta University kindly permits the boys to appear at its Matriculation examination as private candidates. The boys of the Vidyapith have shown uniformly brilliant results at this examination.
A medical ward with 16 beds was opened in January, 1935 and a dormitory for about 25 boys was completed in December of the same year. The institution is now in a position to accommodate 130 students.
Elaborate arrangements have been made for various extra-academic activities such as physical exercise, music and excursion. The Library and Reading Room got some valuable additions. The boys conducted the periodical "Vidyapith'' and organised themselves into various groups for debates, festivals and other social activities.
Since 1933 practical classes have been opened in typewriting, tailoring and gardening.
The institution treated local patients with homeopathic medicines.
The Ramkrishna Mission Society, Rangoon
After twenty years of existence in different forms, the Society was made over to the Mission in 1921. The growing popularity of the Library and Reading Room conducted by
( 23 )
the Society necessitated its removal in 1932 to a larger rented house at 253 Dalhousie Street. The total number of readers was 33,391 in 1934 and 32,760 in 1935. Two ladies' Libraries, one Tamil and another Bengali, were managed by the ladies themselves and were very popular.
The Guest House, known as " Shashi Niketan," was useful to casual visitors to the city. Regular classes and occasional lectures were arranged, and the birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda and, the Holy Mother were celebrated.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Patna
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Patna, was started in 1922
and was recognised as a branch centre of the Mission in 1930. During the period under review special discourses were arranged from time to time by the Ashrama. Attached to the Ashrama is a Students' Home, a college students' hostel run on the lines of a Brahmacharya Ashrama. Suitable buildings to accommodate the different activities of the Ashrama are urgently needed. The attention of the generous public is invited to this promising institution in the capital of Bihar.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Sarisha
This excellent institution, situated 26 miles south of Calcutta on the Diamond Harbour Road, devotes itself to the task of village reconstruction through an all-round education of the right type. Started in December, 1921, it was recognised as a branch centre of the Mission in 1924. The Siksha Mandir or the Boys' School was raised to the M. E. Standard in 1934 and agricultural classes were added to it in 1935. The boys get lessons in folk-dance and physical exercise under an expert and have ample, opportunities for other social activities. The Girls' School at the Ashrama became a full-fledged High School in 1935. A special feature of this section is that the girls learn cooking
( 24 )
and physical exercise. The students of both the schools were supplied with daily tiffin. The Girls' School at Mankhanda managed by the Ashrama till June, 1935, was handed over to the villagers themselves.
The results in public examinations of the schools at the Ashrama and at Mankhanda, particularly of the Girls' schools, have always been brilliant.
In December 1933, the Ashrama took charge of anL. P. School in a precarious state of existence at Jangalpara,and converted it into a mixed U. P. School. In 1935 thiswas organised into two separate schools.
Since 1932 the Ashrama has been running a Boy Scouts Association consisting of about 40 school and college students, who undertook various kinds of social work and organised relief at the annual Jayrampur Fair.
There are two Students' Homes, one attached to the 'Ashrama and another in Calcutta. Some of the inmates of these Homes get pecuniary help from the Ashrama.
The Ashrama conducts a Gymnasium under the supervision of an expert teacher. The boys and girls have shown great skill in drill and sports. The inter-school Athletic sports Association organises annual competitive sports for young men of the sub-division.
The Ashrama Library had 800 books in 1935. There are separate school libraries for the boys and girls.
The Ashrama receives small grants from the Government and the District Board. For the rest it has almost entirely to depend on the generosity of our countrymen, notably some Bhatia and Gujarati merchants of Calcutta. The institution deserves the active co-operation of the benevolent public.
The Ramkrishna Mission Industrial School,Belur (Howrah)
This is the only Industrial institution run by the Mission in Northern Indja. Started in the year 1921 as a part of
[ 25 ]
the Mission headquarters work, It was made a branch centre of the Mission with a Local Committee in September, 1930. Considering the economic depression of the country during the last few years, the growth of this institution has been remarkable. It has secured greater recognition from the Department of Industries, Bengal, as also from many who believe the spread of the Industrial and Agricultural education in the country to be of national importance. This is no longer an experiment, but a living institution steadily tackling, with encouraging results, the vexed question of giving suitable employment to our young men. Situated close to the headquarters of the Mission and the Belur Math, it has attracted many distinguished visitors from all parts of the country.
In 1934 a two-storied building for a dormitory and a workshop was completed at a total cost of Rs. 10,558.
The course of study comprises cabinet-making, weaving, dyeing and calico-printing, and tailoring. The improvement in the standard of, training under competent teachers has been maintained in all sections. Good articles were turned out in the workshops, and they commanded a ready sale.
In the demonstration farm of the agricultural section, the students received training principally in industrial subjects, supplemented by a subsidiary course of instruction and practical work in agriculture, so that they might be fully equipped for an independent career in rural areas.
In the attached Students' Home, most of the boys, being poor, were given free board and lodging. The indigent among the day scholars were also helped with stipends. In the morning and evening some general education was imparted to die younger boys of the Home. The studies and activities of the boys after school hours were under the close supervision of the Warden. Almost the whole of household work and management was in the hands of the students. They had an Association of their own
in which they discussed, every week, industrial and other subjects of interest. Twice they staged dramas, which were much appreciated by the audience. Along with regular religious training and physical exercise, music also received proper attention. The health of the inmates during the period was satisfactory.
The Ramkrishna Mission, Barisal
This institution was started in 1904 and was turned into a branch centre of the Mission in 1911. It has been located in its own premises since 1930. During the period under review, temporary help or monthly aid was given to some persons, some patients were nursed in their own homes, a few were treated with medicine and diet or were taken to the local hospital, and 97 cataract cases were operated. Weekly religious classes were conducted in and outside the Ashrama. Public lectures were also organised on the occasion of the birthday celebrations of the great Teachers of the world, which were very successful.
A number of poor and deserving students were accommodated in the Students' Home attached to the centre. Some paying students, who wanted to be benefited by the training were also admitted. All attempts were made to make them active, self-reliant youths with a taste for service and sacrifice.
The centre maintains a Library, which is open to the public.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Barnagore, Calcutta
Started in the year 1912 as an Orphanage, this institution has during the last few years added to it many other activities. It was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1924. It runs a Primary School. Vocational training was given to the boys in spinning, weaving, cane-work, tailoring and agriculture. Grown-up boys were sent to the local
[ 27 ]
High Schools. The Sanskrit Chatushpathi did creditable work under its competent teacher. The boys of the Orphanage showed good results in the public examinations. There is a Library and Reading Room attached to the Ashrama. The Children's Library, managed by young boys, is becoming more and more popular. Rendering medical aid through the Outdoor Dispensary, attached to the Ashrama, nursing the helpless and the sick of the locality in their own homes and giving occasional doles of rice to the needy were some other activities of the Ashrama.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama,
This is the oldest Ashrama of the Ramkrishna Mission, having been started in the year 1897 by Swami Akhanda-nanda, the present President of the Ramakrishna Order. All these years the Swami devoted himself to the improvement of education and sanitation in the villages. The Ashrama was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1911. It maintains an Orphanage and conducts a Day and a Night School, which had 34 and 29 students respectively on their rolls at the close of 1935. The Outdoor Charitable Dispensary treats local patients, who are also served with free
diet and injections whenever required.
The Vivekananda Society, Jamshedpur (Singhbhum)
This is one of the popular institutions of the town, doing mostly educational and some philanthropic work. Started in the year 1919, it was taken over as a branch centre by the Mission in 1927. The Society runs three Day Schools and a Night School, all being primary schools. In the Students' Home there were 7 inmates at the end of 1935.
In the Workers' Home the number of inmates on an average was 12. The Jamshedpur Mahila Samity Held
[ 28 ]
weekly meetings and classes as well as the annual meeting and Exhibition in the Society's Hall. The Vivekananda Library and Reading Room situated in the Society's premises and its branch at the Ashrama on the bank of the Subarnarekha, away from the din of the town, were maintained as usual.
The philanthropic activities of the Society included nursing of the sick in the local Hospital or in their own homes, cremation of the dead, and free supply of firewood for this purpose. During the epidemic outbreak of smallpox in the town in 1934 and 1935 the volunteers of the Society did excellent nursing work in the Isolation .Hospital.
Regular religious classes and occasional lectures were organised, and the birthday anniversaries of Sri Rama-krishna and Swami Vivekananda were duly celebrated.
The Society has secured a site from the Steel Company for the Dinshaw Memorial Hall and Library and steps are being taken for erecting a suitable building.
The Ramkrishna Mission Vidyalaya, Perianaikenpalayam (Coimbatore)
The Vidyalaya was started in 1930 as a boarding home with only one boy and has now developed into a full-fledged Residential School. It was made a branch of the Ramkrishna Mission in 1934.
The whole scheme of the institution has been drawn up with a view to evolving a type of education by which the boys will grow into strong and self-dependent youngmen. The training arouses their latent instincts of leadership and impresses on them the value of team-work. The boys, divided into groups under their captains, perform all the works of the Ashrama including cooking. They are drawn from all sections of the Hindu society irrespective of caste and are treated equally. A special feature of the institution is that the classes are sometimes taken out to the surrounding villages, where magic lantern demonstra-
[ 29 ]
tions are held and the boys help in cleaning the surroundings. Religious, moral and physical training is adequately imparted along with intellectual training. Besides, the boys take part in other social and literary activities.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Faridpur
The Ashrama was founded in 1921, but was turned into a branch centre of the Mission in 1934. The main work of the Ashrama is educational. It conducts an M. E. School for girls and a Primary School for Harijans. It also accommodates some students. Regular religious classes are held in and outside the Ashrama. A small Library is open to the public. Besides, there is an Outdoor Dispensary attached to it.
Combined Math and Mission Centres
The Ramakrishna Math and Mission, Madras
The Madras Math, situated on Brodies Road, Mylapore, is one of the premier institutions of the Ramakrishna Order, as it is & also one of the earliest, having been started in the year 1897 by the late Swami Ramakrishnananda. It has all along shown a brilliant record of activities, mainly in the direction of preaching and publication. Regular worship, scriptural classes and Bhajana were conducted by the Swamis during the period under review at the Math premises and at the Ramakrishna Mandiram, Triplicane. Moral and religious instruction was given to the students of the Mission Students' Home at Mylapore, and at the Girls' School, George Town. The Swamis of the Math delivered religious lectures and discourses at the invitation of several Societies and Associations not only in and about the city, but also in the different districts of the Presidency.
The publication department has continued to flourish. Vedanta Kesari, the English monthly, reached its twenty-second year in 1935 and Ramakrishna Vijayam, the Tamil monthly, its fifteenth year. The Math has published a good number of English, Tamil and Telugu books, some of which were reprinted during the period under review. The Math has also been conducting a free Elementary School, called the Ramakrishna National Girls' School, located at 6 Krishnappa Naiken Agraharam Street, George Town. There are six lady teachers. The financial position of the School needs much improvement.
The Charitable Dispensary attached to the Math has been progressing steadily. It has now two attending doctors,
[ 31 ]
and has attracted patients even from distant suburbs. In 1933 a building adjoining the Math was purchased for it, and it was removed to its new premises in 1934.
In addition to the Math described above, there is also a Mission centre at Madras which undertakes philanthropic activities.
In the Colony for labouring classes named Rama-krishnapuram at Mylapore, the Mission has erected a large shed with a shrine for common worship. Weekly Bhajana is conducted, and simple class-talks on religion are given once a week.
In the Shiyali Taluq, Dt. Tanjore, there was a terrific cyclone. The Mission branch at Madras started two centres to organise relief work which covered 21 villages and lasted from the 18th January to the 28th July, 1934. Altogether 1,647 huts including 22 schools, temples and churches were rebuilt and 6,058 Madras measures of rice were distributed.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Bombay
This Ashrama, situated at Khar, a flourishing suburb Bombay, has, since its inception in 1923, been doing good work in the city and suburbs, and its beneficent influence is felt throughout the Presidency. In 1932 a branch of Mission was opened at Khar, and the Charitable Dispensary and Library attached to the Ashrama were placed under it. The Library, which is a decent one containing a large number of philosophical and theological books, was accessible to the public.
In 1933 the Mission branch started a Students' Home the object of supplementing University education by cultural and spiritual education. Opportunities are created to influence the students of the city through this Home. The Literary Society started by the students of the Home invited distinguished Professors of Bombay to deliver lectures.
The Ashrama conducted regular worship. The Swamis Ashrama held religious classes in the Ashrama and
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different parts of the city. They were also invited by different Associations of the city to deliver lectures, and undertook extensive lecturing tours in the Presidency.
An Exhibition of Indian arts and crafts was held underthe auspices of the Ashrama in. 1935.
The Ramakrishna Math and Mission, Dacca
The activities of the Dacca centre date back to the year 1899, when the first preachers were sent there from the headquarters. The Seva department was added in 1908, and the monastic workers took charge of the centre in 1914. It was recognised as a branch centre of the Mission in 1916.
The Mission centre at Dacca conducts an Outdoor Dispensary. During the period under review 284 mds. of rice was distributed to a number of needy families as monthly doles. Pecuniary help to the poor amounted to Rs. 42-10-9 and that to students to Rs. 55. Besides, some clothes were distributed. The centre collected Rs. 730-15-9 for the Bihar Earthquake Relief and sent the amount to the headquarters.
Weekly religious classes, were held in the Mission premises as well as other parts of the town, and occasional lecture tours were undertaken in different places of the district. The Library and the Reading Room were run as usual. There is also a small branch at another locality of the town.
The centre supervised a free Primary School for girls at Brahmankitta, a village in the interior, and conducted another in the town. The. Boys' School in the Ashrama was raised to the M. E. standard in 1935. A second Boys' School was conducted in the town.
Regular worship, Bhajana and celebration of religious festivals as well as the birthdays of the great teachers of the world were the principal Math activities of this centre.
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The Ramakrishna Ashrama and Mission
Seva Samity, Sylhet
This institution has been in existence since the year 1916, but die Seva Samity was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1926. The Samity conducted one M. E. and three Primary Schools for boys, one Primary School for girls and a Night School in the neighbouring villages. It maintains three public libraries at Sylhet, Devpur and Agna and has a branch Dispensary at Devpur.
The Ashrama devoted itself mainly to holding regular Bhajana and religious classes, organising lectures, aid celebrating the anniversaries of the great Masters.
During the Assam Flood of 1934, the centre undertook extensive relief work from the 22nd June to the 20th April of the next year. Its activities consisted in giving gratuitous doles of rice, revival of lost industries, opening of a cheap grain shop, distribution of cloth and medical help. Four centres were started, through which 2,335 persons of 71 villages were served with 1,296 mds. 23 srs. of rice, 2,844 pieces of cloth and 2,000 blankets. Besides, 198 families were helped in regaining their means of livelihood, 106 more were helped with seeds and seedlings, and 1,035 persons were treated with medicine.
The Seva Samity at the Karimganj sub-centre conducted two L. P. Schools and one Night School. The Outdoor Dispensary attached to the centre was run as usual. Both these centres nursed some patients at their homes.
The Ramakrishna Math and the Mission Charitable Dispensary, Bhubaneswar (Puri)
This monastery was founded under the auspices of the late Swami Brahmananda, the first President of the Order, in 1919. Regular worship and religious classes were held. The Swamis occasionally went out to the villages, propagat-
[ 34 ]
ing the message of the Master. The birthday of Swami Brahmananda was celebrated with great eclat.
This Math also supervises the Ramkrishna Mission Charitable Dispensary, started in 1920, which has been doing good to thousands of sick people, including pilgrims.
The Sanskrit Chatushpathi opened at the Math in 1933for the monks of the Order turned out good work undera qualified teacher.
Lantern lectures were organised at Cuttack and in some villages of the district on the occasions of the birthday celebrations of Sri Ramakrishna and the Holy Mother.
The Ramakrishna Math and Mission, Bankura
This Math was started in the year 1917. The Charitable Dispensary attached to it was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1932. Pecuniary help was given to poor people, particularly students. The Math conducted regular worship and religious classes. The Library was open to the public. Lectures were arranged on the birthdays of the great Founders of religions.
Besides conducting two Primary Schools for the depressed classes, the centre accommodated some students of Homeopathy and Allopathy.
The centre took an active part during the Flood and Famine Relief operations in 1935, and in co-operation with the headquarters, raised money and organised many relief centres in the district. Fire Relief was also undertaken in the same year, in the village Maniara.
The Ramakrishna Math and the Mission
The Math, situated at Muthiganj, has, ever since it inception in the year 1908, been presided over by Swami Viinanananda, the present Vice-President of the Rama-
[ 35 ]
Math and Mission, whose spiritual advice is a source of perennial comfort to those who associate with him.
The Mission Sevashrama at Allahabad was started ii 1910 and has since been rendering useful service to the poor and helpless through its Outdoor Dispensary.
The Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama, Mymensing
This Ashrama was started in the year 1922 and is now situated in a secluded corner of the town. Besides regulair worship Bhajana and scriptural classes, occasional lecture; were arranged in or out of the Ashrama. The birthdays of the great Masters were also duly observed.
A Mission centre was opened in 1931, which runs an Outdoor Dispensary, a Library which is open to the public, and a small Students' Home.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama and Mission Sevashrama, Contai (Midnapur)
The institution had its origin in the year 1913, but the Sevashrama was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1927. The Sevashrama maintains a Charitable Dispensary. Many sick persons were nursed in their own homes. There branch of the Dispensary at Mansadwip.
During the period under review the Sevashrama con- ducted a U. P. School at Belda and a mixed M. E. School Mansadwip. It also undertook Cholera Relief work in villages in 1935, treating 27 cases with fair success, and helped shipwrecked people at Sagar Island in the same year. Some patients were nursed at home and some dead bodies were cremated.
The Sevashrama maintains a Students' Home, and has a Library which is open to the public.
The Contai Ashrama, among other things, Conducted regular worshipand religious classes and undertook preaching work in the neighbouring villages.
[ 36 ]
The Ramakrishna Ashrama and Mission Sevashrama, Narayanganj(Dacca)
Although the institution was started in 1909, the Sevashrama was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1922. The Sevashrama conducts two Charitable Dispensaries, one at the Ashrama and another at the Bhagavanganj quarter of the town. A number of patients were nursed in their own homes. During the period under review the Sevashrama distributed some rice as doles, and helped some people with money. The Durgacharan Library, which has more thin 2.000 books, and the Reading Room were used by a large number of readers.
The Ashrama at Narayanganj, like other Math centres,conducted regular worship, religious classes, anniversary
The Ramakrishna Ashrama and Mission Sevashrama, Sonargaon (Dacca)
This centre (Tajpur, P. O. Aminpur) was started in 1915. The Sevashrama was converted into a branch centre of the Mission in 1925. Besides conducting an Outdoor Dispensary and a free Library which is open to the public, the Sevashrama gave monthly or occasional, help to some poor families. The Ashrama conducted regular classes, worship, Bhajana, etc., and organised occasional lectures.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama and Mission Seva Samity, Habiganj (Sylhet)
This institution was started in the year 1920, but the Seva Samity was recognised as a branch centre of the Mission in 1926. The main activities of the latter consist in imparting education, secular and religious, to cobblers and members of other depressed classes in the district, and in organising suitable home industries for the improvement of their economic condition.
The Samity, in addition to treating outdoor patient at its own premises, conducted a Charitable Dispensary at Charinao and distributed a quantity of rice and some piece of cloth to the poor. The Ashrama conducted two Night Schools and a Primary School.
In1934 the Gosainagar Shoe Factory was handed over to the people themselves. Two Co-operative Societies for the benefit of the cobblers are being run by the Samity.
The Ashrama conducted regular worship and religiousclasses and organised occasional lectures and discourses.besides celebrating the birthday anniversaries of the greatMasters.
The inmates of the Ashrama took an active part in the Flood Relief work started by the headquarters in Sylhet jn 1934 and 1935. They also undertook Cholera Relief in both these years and inoculated 1,673 persons.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama and Mission Sevashrama, Baliati, (Dacca)
This centre completed its twenty-fourth year in 1935. The Sevashrama, which was made a branch centre of the Mission in 1925, conducts a Boys' and a Girls' Primary School, an Outdoor Charitable Dispensary, a Library and a Reading Room. Some rice was doled out to indigent people,
The Ashrama, in common with other Math centres, conducted regular worship, scriptural classes, Bhajana, etc..
The Ramakrishna Ashrama and Mission Sevashrama, Tamluk (Midnapur)
Thisis one of the popular institutions of the town. Startedin theyear 1914, it was recognised as a branch centre. of the Mission in 1929. The Sevashrama maintains an Indoor Hospital and an Outdoor Dispensary, occasionally
nurses patients in their own homes and distributes cloth, blankets, rice and small cash to some deserving persons.
Cholera Relief work was undertaken in some villages of the sub-division in 1934 and 1935, when 36 houses were disinfected and 24 patients were treated. The Sevashrama undertook Flood Relief work in the Midnapur district in 1935 and helped 506 persons with 366 mds. of foodstuffs and 433 pieces of cloth.
The Primary School started in 1934 has become very popular. The free Circulating Library and Reading Room have also maintained their popularity. Extensive preaching work was undertaken in the sub-division, with the help of the Swamis from the Belur Math. Eight lantern lectures were arranged in different places of the district, which were well attended.
The Ashrama conducted daily religious classes as well as worship and Bhajana, and celebrated the anniversaries of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda.
The Matrimandir and Sarada Sevashrama, Jayrambati (Bankura)
The Matrimandir, established in 1920 to perpetuate the blessed memory of the Holy Mother in the village of her nativity, continued its good work during the period under review. Daily worship was conducted in it, and, among other things, the Holy Mother's birthday and two other festivals were celebrated.
The Sevashrama, made a branch centre of the Mission in 1930, conducts an Outdoor Charitable Dispensary. A Primary School with 9 students was started in 1935. A Sanskrit Chatuspathi was also conducted in the same year.
SECTION IV Math Centres
The Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati (Almora)
It was the cherished object of Swami Vivekananda to found an Ashrama in the heart of the Himalayas, where the Advaita, or the doctrine of the oneness of all existence, might be taught and practised in its pure form, free from all compromises. For this purpose the Advaita Ashrama was established by him in 1899 at Mayavati, in the district of Almora, U. P. Discarding all ceremonials which teach dependence, the Ashrama, though in full sympathy with all other systems, is specially dedicated to Advaita. Regular classes on Vedanta are held, and the Ashrama seeks to produce strong and self-reliant characters through study, reflection and meditation.
Prabuddha Bharata (Awakened India), an English Vedanta monthly, ably conducted by the Ashrama, completed its fortieth year in 1935. It has acquired a distinct place in Indian religious journalism.
During the period under review the Ashrama published the first complete English translation of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad with the commentary of Sankaracharya by Swami Madhavananda, Discourses on Jnana-Yoga and India and Her Problems by Swami Vivekananda, a new edition of, the Teachings of Sri Ramakrishna in one attractive volume, and Altar Flowers, a collection of choice hymns m Sanskrit with English, rendering, while three, more books, SpiritualTalks, Message of our Master and Brahma-Sutras were inthe press nearing completion. Besides this it reprintedmany of its English and Sanskrit publications, the most notable among them being The Complete Works of
Swami Vivek&nanda in 7 volumes and the Vivekachuda-mani. The Publication Department of the Ashrama is now located at 4, Wellington Lane, Calcutta.
A Charitable Dispensary, opened in 1903 by the Ashrama, has been doing excellent service through its Outdoor and Indoor departments to the poor of the surrounding villages within a radius of 20 miles, the doctor often visiting the neighbouring villages to render service to such patients as are not able to come to the Indoor Hospital.
The Ramakrishna Math, Baghbazar, Calcutta
The nucleus of this Math was laid in the year 1899 in a rented house. It was removed to its permanent site at 1, Mukherjee Lane in 1909. Since then it was the Calcutta residence of the Holy Mother, and it was here that she finally entered Mahasamadhi. The place is therefore an abiding source of spiritual inspiration to hundreds of devotees. In addition to the usual routine of a monastery, two weekly religious classes were held up to the middle of 1935, after which only the class on the Bhagavata once a week was continued. These were open to the public and were well attended. This is one of the chief publication centres of the Ramakrishna Order. It has published most of the works of Swami Vivekananda and the Bengali translations of most of his English works, as well as the works of Swami Saradananda and others, some of which were reprinted during the period under review. A new book called Mahapurushjir Katha (Conversations of Swami Shivananda) was published during this period. The Udbodhan, a Bengali monthly magazine started by Swami Vivekananda, completed its thirty-sixth year in 1935.
The Ramakrishna Advaita .Ashrama, Benares
This Ashrama started in the. year 1902 by the late Swami Shivananda in the premier holy city of India, contiguous to the Home of Service, provides facilities for
[ 41 ]
spiritual advancement to the monastic members of the Ramakrishna Order, a large number of whom are maintained by the Ashrama. Regular scriptural classes were held during the period under review, which were fairly attended.
The Ashrama conducts a Library and a Reading Room which were well utilised by the readers. The Library contains about 3,300 books on religious, scientific and historical subjects, besides a valuable collection of Sanskrit philosophical works.
During the period under review the Ashrama celebrated the important Hindu festivals and the birthday anniver-saries of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekanantla. An imposing temple of Sri Ramakrishna, built of stone, which had been begun in 1932, was completed in 1935.
The Gadadhar Ashrama, Bhowanipur, Calcutta
This Ashrama, started in 1921 at 86A, Harish Chatterjee Street, continued its spiritual activities. Regular worship and scriptural classes were conducted for the benefit of the inmates of the Ashrama as also of the lay devotees. The Veda Vidyalaya, established in 1926 for the spread of Sanskrit culture, arranged regular classes on Nyaya, Vedanta, and other allied branches of Sanskrit learning. It had about 40 students on its soils in 1935, of whom 7 lived inthe Ashrama. The students showed brilliant results in public examinations during the period under review. The Ashrama and the Veda Vidyalaya have Libraries with a valuable collection of scriptural and philosophical works together with a few choice books on Hindu culture.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Bangalore
This Ashrama was founded in 1903 under the auspices of the late Swami Ramakrishnananda, and was removed to its present site at Basavangudi in 1908. Situated in a healthy locality, the Ashrama provides a congenial place for meditation and prayer. Regular worship and Bhajana are
[ 42 ]
performed, and the birthday anniversaries of the great Masters are celebrated with appropriate ceremonies.
From the middle of 1935 the preaching work of the Ashrama was very efficiently organised. During this period 28 discourses in the Ashrama and 10 in the Vyasiya Hostel were held. The Swamis also organised meetings and delivered lectures in the town and in the districts of the State. Two books in Kannada, namely, Sri Ramakrishna Upadesha-vakyavali and Sri Ramakrishna Jivanacharitra, were sent to the press for reprint. Through these various activities the Ashrama was able to come in contact c-with an ever-widening circle of friends and devotees.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Nagpur
Though the foundation-stone of the Ashrama was laid in 1925, actual work began in 1928. Since then it has made steady progress. The Charitable Dispensary conducted by the Ashrama enjoys an annual grant of Rs. 500 from the local Municipality. A branch Dispensary was opened in 1935 in a village called Khambla.
Religious classes were held regularly in four localities of the town, and public lectures were delivered, besides others in different towns of the Province. The public Library conducted by the Ashrama was patronised by 250 members.
The Students' Home conducted by the Ashrama is flourishing. Religious classes were held for the inmates of the Home. They run an organisation called the "Students' Study Circle" which arranged fortnightly debates by students, besides public meetings, to discuss important problems. They also delivered lantern lectures in backward quarters of the town.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Mysore
The Mysore Ashrama is situated in one of the best extensions of the city. It was started in the year 1925,
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and was removed to its new premises in 1931. Besides regular worship and Bhajana, the Ashrama conducted weekly religious classes in and outside the Ashrama, notably in five Students' Hostels of the city. Moral and religious instruction was imparted to the fifth and sixth form boys of two local High Schools, as also seven Students' Hostels and other Government Institutions. Under the auspices of the Ramakrishna Seva Samity the Ashrama conducted rural welfare work in Padavarahalli, where religious discourses, lantern lectures, cinema shows, night schools, co-operative and educational dramas, etc. were organised.
The birthdays, of the great Teachers and Founders of religions were observed with due solemnity. The Swamis of the Ashrama addressed various local institutions and associations and undertook lecturing tours in the Province, as also in Coorg and South Canara.
The Ashrama Library was well utilised by the public, specially students. During the period under review the Ashrama published, among others, Karma-Yoga and Vedanta Lectures of Swami Vivekananda in Canarese.
The Students' Home attached to the Ashrama maintained its popularity. It is looked after by a Swami as its Resident Superintendent. Every care is taken to see that the students learn uprightness of conduct and dignity of labour. Their physical and intellectual growth is attended to, and a religious class is held for them. They have a Debating Society and a Students' Garden.
Through the generous help of His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore, the Study Circle, established in 1932 to give the monks of the Ramakrishna Order a course of training in Eastern and Western Philosophy, Sociology, Comparative Religion and Scientific Outlook, continued to produce its beneficent results. Three Swamis in 1934 and three in 1935 availed themselves of the opportunity thus offered.
With the help of friends and devotees of the Ashrama
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a new house to accommodate 15 monks was completed in 1935. A Shrine and a Prayer Hall are under construction.
During the Bihar Earthquake Relief the Ashrama collected Rs. 4,000 which was sent to different Relief Funds.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Ootacamund
The Ashrama, situated in one of the beauty spots of the " Queen of Hill-Stations," was started in the year 1926. During the period under review it conducted regular worship, and two weekly classes for the public, one at the Ashrama and the other in a temple three miles away. Occasional lectures and discourses were1 arranged in and outside the Ashrama, and propaganda tours were undertaken in the adjoining districts.
The Library and Reading Room attached to the Ashrama has more than 1,500 volumes of selected works in English and Tamil, and was open to the public.
The birthday anniversaries of the great Founders of religions and some important religious festivals were observed.
The Ashrama also undertook uplift work for the local. Harijan boys, for whom it conducted weekly Bhajana in the Ashrama.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Malda
This Ashrama, started in the year 1934, has beensteadily growing in popularity. Regular scriptural classes
and Bhajana were held, and. occasional festivals were
celebrated. The Ashrama conducted three Night Schools
for the lower classes in the town and a Dispensary, besidesnursing a number of patients in their own homes. Publiclectures and discourses were arranged in the town andvillages, and lantern lectures in the latter.
Volunteers were organised to look after the convenience of pilgrims at Sadullapur on the eve of the Ardhodaya Yoga in 1935. The Ashrama is pushing on the work of
village reconstruction in different parts of the district through four local Ramakrishna Societies, which conducted one Primary School and one Night School, distributed medicines and held religious classes. The Ashrama has a Library, which was utilised by the public. During the Bihar Earthquake the Ashrama collected some money for relief work, which was sent to the headquarters.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Trichur (Cochin)
The beginning of this Ashrama dates from the starting of the; Vivekodaya Samajam in 1915, but it was recognised by the Math headquarters in 1929.
It is rapidly developing into an important centre of education. Its educational activities commenced in 1924, when the Ramakrishna Gurukul and Vidyamandir were ushered into existence for imparting education mainly to Harijan boys and girls. The work expanded gradually and the institution was divided into the following sections: a Gurukul for boys, a Gurukul for girls and a Vidyamandir consisting of a Lower Secondary School, a Primary School and an Industrial section. An Agricultural section is also being developed.
In the L. S. School the mother-tongue Malayalam and Sanskrit are compulsory, and a working knowledge of Hindi as the common language of the nation is also imparted to all the boys. The aim of the management is to make the school do for these poor people what the famous Tuskegee Institute is doing for the Negroes of America.
In the Industrial section' vocational training is given the boys in spinning, weaving, carpentry, mat-making, masonry, etc. The .want of a well-equipped workshop, however, is a great drawback. The Agricultural section gives practical training to the boys in agriculture, gardening, dairying, bee-culture and other farm work. The boys also run a small provision store for selling necessaries at cheap rates to the, villagers. They also hold the Children's Repub-
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lican Court, its decisions being subject to the approval of the teacher in charge.
The Primary School teaches both boys and girls, fromwhom no tuition fee is charged. The school is recognised by the Government, and the students have shown good results in the Scholarship Examination. In the Gurukuls the boys and girls, who were all free boarders, lived under the supervision of highly qualified resident teachers, who also taught in the Day School. The inmates live a simple open-air life, following a daily routine of self-help and study. Due attention is paid to their spiritual development through daily religious classes, worship and prayers. The students attend to all kinds of work under the guidance of the teachers, including the erection of buildings, weaving their own clothes and making their own furniture. This enables them to get a practical training in these arts and crafts. They learn to love labour and feel its dignity.
The Ashrama exerted itself fully for the uplift of the Harijan masses. To make them accessible to modern forces, a colony was started to which thirty families shifted in 1934. A Co-operative Society, a Benefit Fund and an Employment Bureau undertook economic improvement, and moral and sanitary influences were exerted in various ways.
The Ashrama celebrates Sri Ramakrishna's birthday with great enthusiasm. This institution, which is in need of accommodation, deserves the special notice of all philanthropists.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Dinajpur
The Ashrama completed the twelfth year of its existence in 1935. Religious classes were regularly conducted in and out of the Ashrama premises. The Swami in charge held weekly classes in the local jail. During the anniversaries of the great Masters lectures were organised. The Charitable Dispensary attached to the Ashrama helped local people with Allopathic and Homeopathic medicines. Some
Kala-azar patients were treated successfully. The Ashrama conducts four schools. One of them teaches up to class VI, and the others are L. P. Schools. It also conducts a -small Library.
The Ramakrishna Math, Conjeeveram
This Math in the holy city of Kanchi was founded in the year 1932. It is steadily growing in popularity, making its healthy influence felt all around. It has a decent building of its own. During the period under review regular religious classes were held by the Swamis, and occasional lectures and discourses were given in and outside the Math premises.
The public Library and Reading Room attached to the Math is the only one of its kind in the city, and is doing valuable work by way of educating the public. The average daily attendance is fifty.
The birthdays of the great religious Teachers and Prophets were observed with due solemnity.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Rajkot
This centre in the heart of Kathiawar was started in and has made good progress. It has succeeded in winning the sympathy of some of the Ruling Princes of Kathiawar. The Swamis conducted regular religious classes in and outside the Ashrama and arranged occasional lectures and discourses. Bhajana was an important part of the activities of the Ashrama.
The Ashrama Library is a fairly good one. The Reading Room attached to it is well attended by the public. The Ashrama helped a number of students with monthly stipends. The birthday anniversaries of almost all the great World
Teachers were celebrated. The Ashrama has also published a few Gujarati books.
The Ramakrishna Math, Nattarampalli (North Arcot)
The Math completed twenty-five years of its useful life in 1935. Regular worship, religious classes and Bhajana were conducted, and occasional lectures and discourses were arranged in and outside the Math premises. Moral instruction was imparted to the children at the local school and a Vaniyambadi, 10 miles off. Rural uplift work was carried on in adjoining villages through regular visits and lantern lectures. Along with the talks on useful subjects religious instruction was also given. A Reading Room has been started at Agraharam, a village 3 miles off.
In 1934 the Ashrama undertook Cholera Relief work in 3 villages.
A Night School for adults was conducted and some students were accommodated in the Ashrama. There is also a Library of Tamil books, which are lent to the villagers.
The Math celebrated the birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda and other saints.
The Saradashrama,Ponnampet (Coorg)
This Ashrama, situated among the hills of Coorg, was started in 1927. The work of the Ashrama has grown steadily, and has won the appreciation of the Government and the public. Regular worship and religious classes are conducted. The birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda were elaborately celebrated. The Ashrama has been teaching scientific methods of bee-culture to rural people. A cheap Extractor has been designed by the Ashrama for removing honey without destroying the combs, which was awarded a silver medal by the Mysore Dussers Exhibition. The association for the uplift of the Harijans did good work. The Ashrama has a small Library.
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The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Chandipur (Midnapur)
This Ashrama (P. O. Iswarpur), started in the year 1916 is situated in the rural area of the Midnapur district. Daily worship and scriptural classes were held, and occasional religious lectures were arranged. The Outdoor Dispensary was run as usual. A number of patients were nursed in their own homes. The Ashrama organised Cholera Relief work in the villages. Altogether 15 cases were treated and 402 patients inoculated in 1934, and 15 persons were treated and 215 inoculated in 1935. Occasional relief work was undertaken in local fairs.
The Ashrama maintains a U. P. School for boys and girls. There is a small Library in the Ashrama, which is open to the public.
The Ramakrishna Kutir, Aimora
This Himalayan centre was founded in the year 1918 under the auspices of the late Swami Turiyananda, a disciple of the Master. Situated amidst beautiful surroundings, with a healthy climate, it provides excellent facilities for
meditation and study. It has a small Library.
The Viyekananda Ashrama, Shyamala Tal (Aimora)
This is another retreat on the Himalayas (P. O. Sukhidhang), founded in the year 1915. The Charitable Dispensary, called the Ramakrishna Sevashrama, attached to the Ashrama has proved a boon to the poor, sick hill-people for many miles around. It treats both indoor and outdoor patients.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Bagerhat (Khulna)
This centre was started in 1926. During the period under review scriptural classes were regularly held in and
outside the Ashrama. The birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda and the Holy. Mother were celebrated with proper ceremonies. The special feature of the last named celebration was that ladies took a prominent part in it. There is a small Library in the Ashrama.
The Ramakrishna Math, Puri
This centre in the holy city of Puri was opened in 1932. It is situated directly on the sea, of which it commands a magnificent view. Being at a considerable distance from the congested quarters, the Math is an ideal place for leading a contemplative life. It has got a nice building, where, among other things, regular worship, is performed.
The Ramakrishna Sevashrama, Garbeta (Midnapur)
This Ashrama completed its eighteenth year in 1935. It conducts an Outdoor Dispensary, as also a Primary and a Night School.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Jamtara,(Sonthal Parganas)
This monastery was started in the year 1921 and on account of its dry climate has been a health resort for the sick members of the Order. Regular worship is performed. There is a small Charitable Dispensary attached to the Ashrama, as well as a small Library.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Kishenpur (Dehra-Dun)
This Ashrama (P. O. Rajpur) was started in 1916 in a picturesque valley five miles above Dehra-Dun, on the way to Mussoorie. It is a delightful place for meditation. It has a pretty good Library and a small Outdoor Dispen
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sary. A worship room with some cubicles was completed in 1934.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Jahndi (Faridpur)
This Ashrama was started in 1918 and was recognised as a Math centre in 1931. It has a small Library. Religious classes are held regularly. Some patients were nursed in their homes during the period under review.
The Ramakrishna Ashrarna, Koalpara (Bankjira)
This old Ashrama, situated on the road to Jayrambati at a distance of four miles from it, is a quiet retreat, where regular worship, Bhajana, etc., are performed.
Centres Outside India
The Ramkrishna Mission (Ceylon Branch)
In the year 1924 three Ashramas were started in Ceylon, viz. at Trincomalie, Jaffna and Batticaloa, which did mostly educational work. In 1929 an Ordinance incorporating the Ramkrishna Mission (Ceylon Branch was passed by the Ceylon Legislative Council.
The headquarters in Colombo (Sri Wickrama Road Wellawatta), was started in 1930. In 1935 the Ashrama acquired a piece of land, a few furlongs from the Wellawatta Station, and facing the sea. Steps are being taken for erecting a permanent building. The Ashram conducts regular classes and talks on religious subject, maintains a small shrine and observes the birthday anniversaries of the great Masters. It has also a Library and a Reading Room.
Lectures were delivered by the Swamis of the Missionunder the auspices of different local bodies. They alsowent on tours to different parts of the Island and deliveredpublic lectures. The Swamis published articles in the localpapers on popular and cultural subjects. The Missionconducts several educational institutions in the Island. Theincrease in number as well as the raising of the standard insome of the schools necessitated the provision of new build-ings. A laboratory building was constructed for theTrincomalie English School, two .new wings were added to
the Karativu Boys' School and a shrine was built at Kalladi-Uppodai.
The Mission conducts an English School and a TamilSchool at Trincomalie.
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At Batticaloa the Mission is running eight Tamil Schools and one English School, to which is attached an Orphanage.
Besides these, one Tamil school and one English school at Jaffna are being managed by the Mission with the help of the local people.
All the schools showed steady progress. The total number of students in the 13 schools mentioned above was 2,285 (1,537 boys and 748 girls) in 1935. They were looked after by 74 teachers.
A Library and a Reading Room are conducted, at Batticaloa in the Vivakananda Hall, and the birthday anniversary of Swami Vivekananda is observed. This centre also runs the Shivananda Library and Reading Room.
In Kafmunai the Mission has got a plot of land and a building where the birthday of Sri Ramakrishna is celebrated, and occasional lectures are arranged.
Moral and religious instruction was given to the inmates ofthe Mantivu Leper Asylum and the Batticaloa Jail.
The Ramkrishna Mission, Singapore (Straits Settlements)
The Mission centre at Singapore was started in 1928, in response to a growing demand on the part of the local public for the ideas of the Ramkrishna Mission. It has got building of its own at 9, Norris Road.
Swami Bhaswarananda, who is in charge of the Ashrama, has made a very good impression on the local people. Invited by the public of Teluk Anson and Seremban in F.M.S., he went on a lecturing tour and delivered addresses on various subjects. He also visited some estates and spoke to the labouring classes. The Sunday classes as well as the classes on the Gita and the Upanishads continued as usual.
The Vivekananda School for Boys and Girls with an English class, under one female and three male teachers,
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had 85 students, of whom 20 were free. Moral and religious
instruction formed an essential part of the school teaching.
Music, needlework and physical training received particularattention. The Night School for the depressed classes wasentirely free.
The centre has a Library, which is open to the members.
IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The Vedanta Society, New York
This is the first Vedanta centrein the United States of America, started in 1894 as a result of the enthusiasm created by Swami Vivekananda by his epoch-making lecture on Hinduism at the Parliament of Religions, Chicago. It was incorporated in 1898. Housed in a spacious building at 34 West 71st Street, close to the Central Park, the Society has a beautifully decorated auditorium, a chapel for silent meditation and a good library of Eastern and Western literature.
The season's work begins in October and ends in June. During the period under review a sermon was preached every Sunday by Swami Bodhananda, who is in charge, and scriptural classes were held twice a week. Practical training in meditation was given, and interviews were arranged in which individual instructions were given to the students to assist them in leading a religious life. Some Churches and cultural and educational institutions invited the Swami to lecture on the universal philosophy of Vedanta.
The Society, among other things, celebrated the birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda, when notable speakers addressed the audience, and Hindu dinners were arranged.
These are features common to all the Vedanta Centresin America.
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The Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Centre,
Feeling the need for a greater development of the workof the Ramkrishna Mission in this premier city of theUnited States, a number of students and admirers ofVedanta decided to organise a new centre in New Yorkwhereby an increasing number of people might be attractedto this philosophy. Accordingly in May, 1933, a chapel wasarranged for in a centrally located building at 200 West57th Street, and Swami Nikhilananda was invited to act asthe leader of the centre.
In addition to his Sunday lectures on general topics, the Swami conducted slasses on Tuesday and Friday evenings on standard Vedantic texts, attended by an average of frfty students. Questions were answered after both the classes, -He has also opened a class on the Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna in order to give the more deeply interested among his students a fuller and more intimate knowledge of the religious traditions and practices of India than is possible in formal lectures and classes. He also lectures very often on invitation at Universities, Clubs and cultural Associations.
During the 1934-35 season, a number of special celebra-tions were held, all of which were very well attended. Inaddition, several dinners were arranged, at which notablespeakers, of New York addressed the students and guests ofthe centre.
The Vedanta Centre, Boston (Massachusetts)
The first nucleus of this centre was laid in 1909 Swami Paramananda, who is still in charge of it. He is a successful preacher of Vedanta, and lectures in different places to appreciative audiences in his frequent journeys across the country. He is also the author of many antic books both in prose and verse.
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The centre is housed at 32 Fenway, a stately four-storied building with a large and attractive auditorium and a chapel used for meditation and worship by resident members and students. Two services on Sundays, a class on Hindu philosophical works on Tuesdays and a Hindu dinner served to the students and guests on Thursdays comprise the weekly programme of the centre, one of the Sisters taking charge of the work in the absence of the Swami. The centre observed the birthdays of 9ri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda and Buddha, to mention a few.
The Vedanta monthly, The Message of the East, which
completed its twenty-fourth year in 1935, is conducted fromthis centre.
The Vedanta Centre, Cohasset (Massachusetts)
This is a lovely retreat attached to the Boston centre, at a distance of about 23 miles from the city. Started in 1929, it affords students of Vedanta opportunities to devote themselves to study and contemplation. The activities of the centre were suspended during the winter months.
The Vedanta Society, Providence (Rhode Island)
This Society was started by Swami Akhilananda in September, 1928. It dedicated its home, the Hindu Temple, at 224 Angell Street, in 1931. This magnificent three-storied building, donated by two American members, has a chapel, an auditorium, a library, an office, a special worship room, and living quarters and study for the Swami. Services are conducted by the Swami every Sunday, and classes are held on Tuesdays and Fridays in the chapel. The Tuesday classes are devoted to scriptural studies and often to series of lectures on different phases of practical psychology. The Friday classes are devoted to the practice of meditation followed by the study of the scriptures. A Library is open for the use of the students. Interviews and individual instructions are given.
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Swami Akhilananda was invited by many Churches,
Societies and Clubs in Providence and other cities, to speakon India and on different phases of Hinduism. He attendedregularly once a month the meetings of the Universal Clubof Brown University, an Association of ministers of RhodeIsland, where he lectured and joined in discussions. Hewas also asked in 1935 to join the Union Ministers' Meeting.He also joined in the discussions of the Williams TownInstitute of Human Relations. The Swami's lectures overthe radio WPRO every week were well appreciated. Atintervals he also conducted the morning service over the
In 1935 the Swami went on invitation to Cleveland, Philadelphia and St. Louis, and spoke on Vedanta before select and appreciative audiences with great effect.
The birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda and Buddha as well as Christmas and other special days were observed. Receptions, social activities and dinners were also held. The Society had the pleasure of entertaining many of the Swamis in America, who gave interesting lectures in its chapel. It has made many distinguished friends amongst highly cultured sections of the country.
The Vedanta Society, Washington (D. C.)
The nucleus of the Society was formed in 1930, when Swami Akhilananda came from Providence and gave a series of lectures at one of the Capital's well-known hotels, Inch were well appreciated. He continued the work by visits, and in 1931 rented a house at 1712 N Street, N.W. to put it on a Permanent basis. About the end of the Society has been removed to a new apartment house at 1630 R Street, N.W.
Since November, 1931, Swami Vividishananda has been in charge of the work, and has tried to organise and buildit up. During the season, from November to June lectures are given every Sunday evening, and scriptural
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classes are held every Tuesday and Thursday evening, preceded by a short meditation.
The Society also celebrated the Christmas and the birthday anniversaries of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda, and had guest speakers like Swami Akhil-ananda and Swami Gnaneswarananda, who spoke before large and appreciative audiences.
Over and above the regular work, Swami Vividish-ananda had several outside engagements including a series of Radio lectures on invitation, at the WOL station on Hindu Philosophy and Religion, which contributed not a little to the spread of the message of Vedanta.
The Society owes a great deal to Swami Akhilananda,who has been an unfailing source of encouragement invarious ways.
The Vedanta Society, Chicago (Illinois)
This Society was started by Swami Gnaneswarananda, and is situated at 120 East Delaware Place, in a very respectable locality near the Lake. During the period under review it has maintained its progress and the increase in its membership.
The Sunday services have continued to be popular, the average attendance being 160. Weekday classes have been organised into a four years' regular course, to which only registered students are admitted. There are 40 such students on the rolls of the two regular classes.
Students who do not want to join the above classes avail themselves of short courses given to small groups. There were as many as eight such special classes in a week.
Swami Gnaneswarananda is invited by other organisations to give public lectures on Hindu Philosophy, Art and Culture, which help to spread the message of India amongst many educational and cultural groups outside the membership of the Society.
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The Vedanta Society, SanFrancisco (California)
This Society owed its origin to the inspiring visit of Swami Vivekananda to the city in the year 1900. It is located in the Hindu Temple, the first of its kind in the West, at 2963 Webster Street, within a few minutes' walk of the San Francisco Bay. The Society was formally incorporated in 1928.
Under the leadership of Swami Ashokananda, who is in charge, the activities of the Society, during the period under review, ave maintained their improvement in attendance in the services and classes. This necessitated the renting of a large hall at the Country Club for the Sunday morning services, when the hall is always full to capacity. The Swami also delivered lectures on Vedanta Philosophy on Wednesdays and held a study class on Fridays. He was frequently invited to deliver lectures in intellectual circles, which were well attended and much appreciated.
Successful extension work at Oakland, a growing city accross the Bay, consisting of Sunday services in the evening and study classes on Mondays are some of the other activities of the Swami.
The Swami also gave practical instruction for spiritual development to a large number of earnest seekers.
The.Shanti Ashrama, San Antone Valley (California)
This "Peace Retreat," started by the late Swami Turiyananda, is attached to the Vedanta Society, San Francisco. It is situated amidst beautiful mountain scenery, about a hundred, miles from the City, and has since 1900 been an excellent place for meditation to the students of the Society. During the warm season Swami Ashokananda of San Francisco holds a Retreat at the Ashrama, when groups of earnest students are helped to lead
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an intensive life of spiritual practice and study in the congenial atmosphere of this place.
The Ananda Ashrama, La Crescenta (California)
This Ashrama, situated in a beautiful spot on the hills,seventeen miles from Los Angeles, was started as anextension of the Boston centre in 1923. Away from thedin of city life, the Ashrama, with its spacious grounds,serves as a model hermitage for the Vedanta students ofAmerica. Swami Paramananda has succeeded in attractinga devoted group of followers of both sexes, who live andwork in this Ashrama as one family. Regular services andclasses are held by the Swami, or in his absence by one orother of the Sisters.
The Ashrama observed, among other things, the Durga Puja and the birthdays of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda. It has an Arts and Crafts department.
The Vedanta Society, Hollywood (California)
This centre was started by Swami Prabhavananda inthe year 1930. Since that time it has been steadily growing.It possesses a house of its own, called the VivekanandaHome, at 1946 Ivar Avenue on a picturesque elevation, thegift of an American lady devotee.
Sunday services, weekday classes and special classes forchildren on practical spiritual living every other Sundaythrough simple stories and inspiring biographies formed the main programme of the Swami's work. Under the auspicesof the Society the Swami held classes in branch centresoutside Hollywood and occasionally lectured on specialinvitation in the outlying towns. The celebration of thebirthday anniversaries of some of the great Teachers ofthe world amid appropriate settings was also a part of thecentre's activities.
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The Vedanta Society, Portland (Oregon)
This centre was started by Swami Prabhavananda in November, 1925, and he was in charge till December, 1929, when he was succeeded by Swami Vividishananda, who had been sent out from India. The work continued under the new Swami's guidance, but on account of financial difficulties it had to be suspended from June, 1930. A few ardent members of the Society, however, continued their study of Vedanta during the years 1930 and 1931, and held regular weekly study classes in the Public Library building, till in 1932 Swami Devatmananda, its present leader, took charge.
In spite of acute financial stringency among the general public, the Society has made remarkable progress under Swami Devatmananda. It has secured a home of its own, called the Vedic Temple, a two-storied building located in a very respectable district, at 1206 N.W. 25th Avenue, which was occupied in April, 1934.
In addition to Sunday services, week-day classes, special devotional services on the birthday anniversaries of all the World Teachers, and social gatherings, the Society also conducts a Women's League—a cultural and educational group consisting of women members and friends of the Society, which meets once a month. Lecture classe's and forums in different parts of the city are also organised.
IN ARGENTINA (SOUTH AMERICA)
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Buenos Aires
An interesting development of the Vedanta work of Ramakriskna Order in foreign lands is the starting in 1933 of a Ramakrishna Ashrama in Buenos Aires, the capital of the Argentine Republic of South America. Swami Vijoyananda, who has organised this work was sent mere on the invitation of some friends interested in philosophy in October, 1932. From the very beginning he
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has met with considerable success in this land, where the message of Hinduism is being heard for the first time.
The Ashrama is at present located at Larrea 1367. The Swami is now able to conduct his classes in Spanish, the language of the country. Every week he holds five classes in the morning, attended regularly by 35 students, and three evening classes attended by about 60. The Swami has been delivering a large number of public lectures in English, to which his eloquence and forceful personality is attracting from 500 to 1,000 hearers.
The Ashrama is going to undertake the translation of Swami Vivekananda's works in Spanish, and the publication of the addresses and class-talks of Swami Vijoyananda. It has to be remarked that the Swami has gained this notable success in spite of the fact that the field of his labour lies in a Catholic country where he has to face the bitter opposition of powerful religious organisations.
The Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Vedanta Society, London
A new centre in England is already an accomplished fact. Swami Avyaktananda, who went to England with the twofold object of studying the socio-economic system of the west and preaching Vedanta, has almost fulfilled a cherished dream of Swami Vivekananda by starting in October, 1934, the Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Vedanta Society in London. It is situated at 51, Lancaster Gate, W. 2.
The Swami made an extensive tour in England and or the continent and delivered lectures on invitation before anumber of English Societies, which, were well appreciated Weekly classes and lectures at the Society's Hall, drawing-room meetings, meditation classes and interviews—these are the various ways in which he is trying to reach the English public including the cultured section.
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The Society also duly celebrated the anniversaries of
Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda in 1935. Manyold friends and admirers have availed themselves of thisopportunity of fresh contact with Vedantic ideals. A num-ber of Societies interested in Indian thought and mys-ticism, viz. the British Mahabodhi Society, the LondonTheosophical Society, the Friends of India Society, theSouthport Yoga Society, the International Fellowship Club,the London Institute of Indian Mysticism, the WorldFellowship of Faiths and Streatham Spiritualist Society,invited the Swami on several occasions to deliver publiclectured on Indian culture.
Swami Avyaktananda has also met many professors of Oxford, Cambridge and London and discussed general topics with them.
IN CENTRAL EUROPE
Europe has got another representative of the Ram- krishna Mission in the person of Swami Yatiswarananda. At the earnest request of a group of Vedanta students at Wiesbaden in Germany, he reached there in November, 1933, and has made himself thoroughly appreciated by his students, for whom he held several classes every week in that at Adolfsalle 13.
He visited Switzerland in 1935 and is trying to make it base of his work in Central Europe. The nucleus of a permanent centre has already "been started at Campfer, Engadin.He gave regular discourses and occasional lectures at Geneva, before the Society of Friends and Bahai International Bureau. He has mainly directed his energies to the training of a few groups of earnest souls—to the building up of their spiritual life and to acquainting them more fully with Vedantic thoughts. Some groups, senior and junior have been formed at St. Moritz, Campfer and Geneva. The students read, think and try to live Vedanta.
Throughtours, lectures on invitation, and correspond-ence, the Swami has come in touch with a large number
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of scholars, devotees and friends in different countries ofEurope. The lecture that he delivered in Ascona on"Hindu Religious Symbology" has been translated into
German for incorporation into the Eranos Year-Book, andhis lecture on "Labour and Moral Culture" at theInternational Moral Education Congress in Cracow, Poland,
was published in a high class cultural quarterly of Warsaw.
The Swami has arranged for the translation of SwamiVivekananda's four Yogas and Inspired Talks into Germanand French. In addition to this a German journal hasundertaken to open its columns regularly to articles onVedantic subjects. This will be of great value in popularis-ing Vedanta on the Continent. Already the number of
adherents is increasing, and the trend of events clearlyindicates that the Vedanta movement has come to stay in.Europe.
VEDANTA WORK IN SOUTH AFRICA
At the request of the Transvaal Hindu Seva Samaj, Johannesburg, South Africa, the Mission deputed Swami Adyananda to carry the message of Sri Ramakrishna-Vivekananda and of Vedanta to those distant shores. The Swami reached Johannesburg in February, 1934. On arrival he was welcomed by the different Indian Associations of Transvaal. He then gave a series of lectures at Johannesburg, beginning with the one at the Town Hall under the presidency of Prof. Hoernle of Witwatersrand University. These meetings were all well attended, the audience being composed of nearly 600 European ladies and gentlemen. They were followed by regular discourses and lectures at Johannesburg—which became his headquarters— under the auspices of different societies, both Indian and European. Several lectures were also delivered at the neighbouring towns of Pretoria, Kruegersdorf, Benoni and Germiston.
The University of Witwatersrand called upon him to deliver a series of extension lectures on Hindu philosophy
which werelistened to with keen interest. These were charged for, and the whole income (£80) was donated to the University library for the purchase of books on Hindu philosophy, religion, art and history according to the Swami'sselection. In May, 1934, the Swami was invited to open the third session of the South African. Hindu Conference at Durban with an inaugural address at the Town Hall, where an audience of about 4,000 was present. Here he stayed for two months and during this period delivered about two dozen lectures. He then visited Pietermaritzburg, Dundee and Ladysmith in Natal, and gave well-appreciated lectures at all these places. In September he visited the Cape Province and delivered lectures in East London, Port Elizabeth, Gramstown and other cities, in many of which the Mayors presided.
At Johannesburg, the Swami had personal interviews with General Hertzog, the Prime Minister, General Smuts, the Minister of Justice and Mr. J. K. Hofmeyr, the Minister ofthe Interior. The Swami left Transvaal in December, 1934. During his stay of about 11 months in the Union of South Africa he delivered about 120 lectures, besides several discourses, classes and personal interviews, which roused keen interest in Vedanta and the Masters' message, both amongst Indians and Europeans. On his way to India the Swami visited Bulawayo, Salisbury and Beira, where receptions and addresses were given him under the presidency of the Mayors.
When immigration difficulties are overcome, we may hope to see permanent centres of the Mission for the propagation of Vedanta and Hindu culture started in South Africa, where great prejudice of colour and ignorance about India prevail.
There are a few other centres which are conducted on the same principles as the institutions of the Ramakrishna Order, but are not yet formally connected with it. Four of them deserve mention.
The Ramakrishna Ashramas, Khassia and Jaintia Hills
The work in these hills was begun eleven years ago with the object of diffusing a knowledge of Hinduism among the Khassia hill-tribes, about one-sixth of whom have forsaken their own faith, adopting everything alien as good. The activities were confined to matters educational, charitable and spiritual.
After a few years' experience, it was thought advisable that the work should be better organised and directed from a central place. A plot of land was purchased, accordingly, at Shillong, and suitable buildings are being put up for an Ashrama. The Shillong centre now conducts a free Primary School with 3 teachers and 46 students. For the general public it conducts classes on Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita, the Upanishads and the Gita. The total number of such classes in 1935 was 90 and the average attendance 20. The Ashrama Library had 470 books, which were utilised by 440 readers. During the Damodar Flood the Ashrama collected Rs. 112-4, which was sent to the Ramkrishna Mission headquarters.
An L. P. School with 20 students was conducted at Sheila. The Library had 150 books. Fifty religious classes were held, the average attendance being 15. There is also a Charitable Dispensary at the place.
At the Cherrapunji centre, a High School teaching up to class VIII is being run with 9 teachers and a total strength of 107. The school Library has 410 books. There is also a Hostel for boys, and steps are being taken for erecting a permanent building.
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The Primary School at Nongwar had 15 students on
the rolls in 1935.
The centres with their headquarters at Shillong will soon be amalgamated with the Mission.
The Ramakrishna Sevashrama, Silchar (Cachar)
This institution has been doing good work among the hill-tribes of the district since 1924. In the Students' Home conducted by the Ashrama, there were 12 students in 1935, of whom 6 were free. The boys attended the local High School, and in the Home they got lessons in music, weaving, and agriculture. The Ashrama also manages five Night Schools and a Lower Primary School. Lantern lectures in the rural areas were undertaken now and then. The Library attached to the Ashrama contains 1,042 books and was utilised by 1490 readers in 1935.
The Vivekananda Silpi Sangha,
This is an institution started by a Swami of the Ramkrishna Mission in 1929 as a step towards solving the unemployment problem of the middle classes in our country. It tearches young men to earn their livelihood by developing such cottage industries as can be conducted with small capital, e.g., weaving, dyeing, bleaching, soap-making, clay-modelling, cane work, toy-making, leather embossing and painting, and fret-work. A techno-industrial school, which is conducted under its auspices and managed by one of its students, is doing very useful work at Jharia, and so is the branch centre at Chota Ambona, near Dhanbad. The Swami with the help of his students has given successful demonstrations before many an Industrial Exhibition, which were awarded a number of medals by the organisers.
The Sangha at Cossipore (31A, Barrackpur Trunk Road) and its branches have trained about 80 students up till now. With the help of 20 of them 20 temporary
extension centres were started at various places in Assam, Bengal and Bihar, and more than a thousand persons learnt one or more crafts through them.
The Sangha is greatly handicapped for want of funds and deserves substantial help and encouragement from the generous public.
The Ramakrishna Ashrama, Karachi
A new centre is fast developing, under the care of Swami Sharvananda, at Karachi, which he first visited in the middle of 1934. The enthusiasm evoked by his lectures and class-talks has led to the establishment of an Ashrama at Garden Quarter, where regular worship and classes and occasional lectures are being conducted. Arrangements are complete so that it will shortly have a permanent home ofits own and be a full-fledged centre of the Ramakrishna Math, the first one to be started in Sind.
Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda Birthday Celebrations
As it is impossible to give a detailed account of the celebrations observed by the Maths and Ashramas all over India and abroad, we give here only a brief general account of the same. On these occasions, special worship, Homa, chanting of sacred texts, Bhajana and Sankirtana, distribution of Prasada to the devotees, feeding of the " Daridra Narayanas " in large numbers, and lectures on the lives and teachings of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda by eminent speakers, form the general programme according to the circumstances.
These occasions also afford great opportunities to the different centres to invite the senior Swamis of the Order
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as preachers, and thus the message of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda is steadily propagated all over the country. They bring many young and ardent souls into a closer touch with the principles and ideals of the Mission. Some of them have already dedicated their lives to the cause by joining the monastic Order, while others have become friends and supporters of the Mission.
The different Mission Funds kept open for
Apart from the monastic life and discipline of the Maths and Ashramas, the Ramkrishna Mission affords opportunities for the wider public to co-operate with the members of the Ramakrishna Order in carrying out various items of work chalked out by Swami Vivekananda for serving our countrymen in different ways. Generally speaking, such co-operation may consist in an active participation in the work of the Mission as its members or associates, or in pecuniary contribution to its different funds, or in both. Persons who sympathise with the objects of the Mission but are unable actively to participate in its activities are always welcome to co-operate with the Mission by sending contributions, however small, to one or more of the following funds, which need their support:—
(i) Funds for the support of the Permanent
Philanthropic and Educational Institutions.
(ii) The Provident Relief Fund, for keeping the
resources ready to some extent against the
sudden scourges of nature such as pestilence,
famine, flood, fire and earthquake.
(iii) The Poor Fund, for alleviating individual
distress of various kinds that claims urgent
help from the Mission at its headquarters.
(iv) The Mass Education Fund—which speaks for
(v) The General Fund, for defraying the general expenses of the Mission, such as are incurred
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for the inspection of centres, the holding of meetings of the Mission, missionary work, postage, printing and stationery.
Contributions may kindly be sent to the President of the Mission, Belur Math P. O., Howrah, with a clear specification as to the name of the particular institution or the kind of work for which they are meant, or they may be sent direct to the institutions concerned.
Thanks of the Mission and its Appeal
We take this opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude to all the kind donors, subscribers, friends and sympathisers who by their ready assistance, financial or otherwise, have placed the different centres of the Mission on a working order, as well as to those who, in response to our appeals for funds during various providential mishaps such as earthquake, flood, famine and fire, have helped us to carry on successfully these occasional relief operations. Our thanks are also due to the proprietors and editors of the English and vernacular periodicals in India for the kindness they have shown in publishing our appeals and reports, as also to the local gentry, official or non-official, in the various areas, whose co-operation has materially helped the Mission in conducting the relief activities in those parts on different occasions. We also express our gratefulness to the local physicians of the different centres who cheer-.fully lent us their services whenever they were approached.
We hope the generous public all over India and abroadwill continue to give the Mission the same kind co-operationand help that they have given so unstintedly in the past,so that we may realise the Truth by carrying out the ideal
of Work and Worship, the gospel bf the new era whereinlies the hope of the future. All well-wishers of India canfind here a golden opportunity to do their bit towards theamelioration of the condition of their suffering brethren,and be sharers in the uplift of humanity.
Extracts from the Memorandum of Association of the Ramkrishna Mission
Registered in May, 1909, under Act XXI of
1860 of the Governor-General of India
1. The name of the Association is the ramkrishna mission.
The objects of the Association are:—
(a) To impart and promote the study of the Vedanta and its principles as propounded by Sri Ramakrishna and practically illustrated by his own life, and of Comparative Theology in its widest form.
(2) To impart and promote the study of the arts, sciences and industries.
To train teachers in all branches of knowledgeabove-mentioned and enable them to reach the masses.
To carry on educational work among the masses.
To establish, maintain, carry on and assist schools,colleges, orphanages, workshops, laboratories, hospitals,dispensaries, houses for the infirm, the invalid and theafflicted, famine relief works, and other educational andcharitable works and institutions of a like nature.
(f) To print and publish and to sell or distribute, gratuitously or otherwise, journals, periodicals, books or leaflets that the Association may think desirable for the promotion of its objects.
(g) To carry on any other work which may seem to the Association capable of being conveniently carried on in connection with and calculated directly or indirectly to promote any of the before-mentioned objects.
Extracts from the Rules and Regulations
of the Ramkrishna Mission
1.The Association is established for the purposesexpressed in theMemorandum of Association.
Members and Associates.
2.(a) All followers, whether lay or monastic, of the
Paramahansa Ramakrishna may be members of the
Association if elected at a meeting of the Association or
nominated by the Governing Body hereinafter mentioned,
provided that the total number of the members shall not at any time exceed 700.
(b) A person intending to be a member shall sign the declaration form annexed herewith and submit to the Secretary an application, in a form prescribed by the Association, and he shall be proposed by a member of the Association and seconded and supported by at least two members of the Governing Body.
Members' Declaration Form.
(i) I look upon Sri Ramakrishna as an Illustration Embodiment of the Religion Eternal, whose life and teachings help one to understand the plan and purpose of all the religions of the world and their underlying truth and harmony.
(ii) I look upon all religions as paths to God, and shall try to live in peace and fellowship with the followers of all religions.
(iii) I regard the realisation of God as the highest objective of life, and renunciation and service as the central means to this realisation.
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(iv) I entertain feelings of love and reverence towards the Holy Order of Sri Ramakrishna founded by Swami Vivekananda, and shall try my best to serve it.
(v) I have full sympathy with all the objects of the Ramkrishna Mission as set forth in the Memorandum ofAssociation, and I will actively co-operate with the work
of the Mission.
3. All persons irrespective of colour, creed or caste, sympathising with all or any of the objects of the Association may be associates, if elected or nominated as mentioned in rule 2, regarding the election of members.
4.Monastic members shall not be required to pay anyadmission fee or any subscription
5. Every lay member and every associate, unlessexempted therefrom in writing by the Governing Body, shallpay an admission fee of Rs. 5 and an annual subscriptionof Rs. 5 payable by two half-yearly instalments in advance.
The Governing Body may exempt any member or associatefrom payment of all or any fees or subscriptions.
6.The annual subscription shall be commuted by apayment of Rs. 100.
7.(a) Connection of members and associates with theAssociation shall cease by resignation, death, removal ornon-payment of dues for two years but shall be. capable ofrenewal in such manner as the Governing Body may fromtime to time decide.
(b)The Governing Body on a requisition signed b forty lay members of the Association may remove a lay member from the rolls of the Association, provided the connection of such member be deemed by the Governing Body after enquiry as detrimental to the interests of the Association.
(c)If in the opinion of the Governing Body conduct and behaviour of any member have been such to be detrimental to the objects and work of the Association the Governing Body may after notice to such member and
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hearing his explanation, if any, suspend him for a period not exceeding six months.
(d) It shall be competent for the Association to remove any lay member from the rolls of the Association by a majority consisting of at least three-fifths of the votes cast at a meeting of the Association.
(e) The Governing Body shall be competent to remove any monastic member from the rolls of the Association by a majority of votes cast at a meeting of the Governing Body specially convened for that purpose, provided that no one shall be removed except when not less than five votes are, cast in favour of his removal.
8. Members shall be entitled to:—
Vote at all meetings of the Association, use theLibrary attached to the Math at Belur in the district ofHowrah and reside at the Math temporarily subject to rulesand regulations prescribed by the Math authorities.
Attend all classes formed by the Association forthe instruction of its members and receive individualinstructions whenever practicable.
Receive all publications of the Association at aspecial discount of 25 per cent, on the published price.
(d)Mofussil members shall be entitled to receive^English or Bengali proceedings, reports and leaflets pub-
lished by the Association on payment of postage dues.
9. Associates shall have all the privileges of members the right to vote at meetings.
Temporary Relief Work undertaken in the past
1.Famine Relief Work:—
In Murshidabad in 1896 in Dinajpur, Sdnthal Parganas and 24-Parganas in 1897; at Kishengarh (Rajputana) in 1899-1900; at Khandwa (C. P.) in 1900; in Tippera, Sylhet, Noakhali and-24-Parganas in 1906-07; in Puri and Murshidabad in 1908; in Bankura, Balasore,-Noakhali, Tippera, Cachar, Midnapur, Mymensing, Faridpur and Dacca in 1915-16;'in Manbhum, Sonthal Parganas, Puri, Tippera and Bankura in 1919; in Puri in 1920; in Khulna in 1921; in Sonthal Parganas and Midnapur in 1926; in Bankura and Dinajpur in 1928; in Rangpur and Nadia in 1931; in Mymensing and Pabna in 1932.
2.Flood Relief Work :—
In Bhagalpur in 1899; in 24-Parganas in 1900; in Midnapur and Hooghly in 1909; in Bankura, Hooghly, Howrah and Midnapur in 1913-14; in Cachar, Noakhali and Tippera in 1915; in Benares, Ballia, Burdwan and Faridpur in 1916; in Burdwan and Cachar in 1916; in Rajshahi in 1918; in Muttra in 1918-19; in Midnapur, Cuttack and Puri in 1920; in Amherst (Burma) in 1920-21; in Rajshahi, Midnapur, Faridpur, Hooghly and Bankura in 1922; in Patna and Arrah in 1923; in Dehra-Dun, Saharanpur," Muttra and Bhagalpur in 1924; in Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Coimbatore, Salem, British Malabar, Cochin and Travancore in 1924; in Akyab (Burma) and Midnapur in 1926; in Kaira and Balasore in 1927; in Cachar, Sylhet and Nowgong in 1929; in Midnapur in 1929; in Pabna, Mymensing and Dacca in 1931; in Cuttack, Puri and Midnapore in 1933.
3.Sanitary Relief Work:—
(a) Plague: In Calcutta during the epidemic of
1899-1900; at Bhagalpur in 1904-5 and 1912; at Lahore and Rohtak in 1924.
(b) During the Ganga-Sagar Mela in Saugor Island in 1912, 1914—1925.
(c) During the Kumbha Mela of Allahabad in 1930.
Influenza: In Benares, Balasore, Puri andNoakhali in 1918-19.
Cholera: In Tehri in 1913; in Howrah in 1917;in Jalpaiguri in 1924; in Purnea and Hooghly in 1925; inMalda and Purnea in 1926; in Burdwan in 1929; in Purneain 1930.
4. Cyclone and Tornado Relief Work:—
In Dacca, Barisal, Faridpur and Khulna in 1919; in Ganjam in 1923-24; in Faridpur in 1926; in Nellore in 1927; in. Mymensing in 1932.
5.Fire Relief Work:—
In.Puri in 1915, 1916, 1920, 1923, 1926, 1927, 1932 and 1933; in Murshidabad and Muttra in 1927; in Midnapur in 1919; in Jessore in 1922 and 1933; in Manbhum in 1923, 1925, 1930 and 1933; in 24-Parganas in 1923, 1927, 1928 and 1930; in Burdwan, Birbhum and Kamrup in 1924; in Howrah in 1930; in Bankura in 1932 and- 1933; in Murshidabad in 1933; in Birbhum in 1933.
6.Earthquake and Landslip Relief Work:—At Darjeeling in 1899.
At Pharamsala (Punjab) in 1905.
7.Riot Relief Work:—
In Dacca and Mymensing in 1930.
Coolie Relief Work:— At Chtndpur (Tippera) in 1921.
Water Scarcity Relief Work:— In Faridpur in 1920-21.
0. Cloth Relief Work:—
In many districts of Bengal in 1919.
Besides these, temporary relief work of various kinds as organised by the branch centres of the Mission from me to time.
List of Centres according to Territorial Divisions! 1936)